Learning Outcomes

Course's educational training has specific learning outcomes, to the achievement of which contribute the knowledge (know), the aptitude, and the practical abilities (know how). More in detail, the goals are aimed at obtaining a nurse able to:
- independently and responsibly manage preventive and healthcare interventions towards persons, families, and communities;
- manage nursing to patients (children, adults, and old people);
- manage nursing to patients with chronic diseases and disabilities;
- guarantee a safe administration of therapy and supervision its efficacy;
- carry out the nursing techniques established in the Degree Programme;
- make decisions on the basis of patient's conditions, the altered values of parameters, medical reports, and laboratory exams;
- manage the diagnosis guaranteeing the patient's proper preparation and the following supervision;
- integrate nursing in the multidisciplinary care project;
- check, with structured and systematic techniques and methods, the patient's problems by identifying the alterations of functional models (activity and exercise, health perception and conservation, nutrition and metabolism, elimination model, rest and sleep, cognition and perception, concept of self, role and relations, stress coping and management, sexuality and reproduction, values and convictions;
- activate and support the patient's remaining abilities to promote the adaptation to the limits and alterations caused by the illness, as well as to the changes of lifestyles;
- identify patient's nursing needs and his/her reactions to the illness, therapies, institutionalisation, changes in everyday activities, and perceived quality of life;
- establish the priority of the interventions on the basis of the healthcare needs, the organisational needs, and the best use of the available resources;
- plan and realise, cooperating with other professionals, information and educational interventions of risk factors control towards individuals and groups;
- evaluate the outcomes of the assistance given and readapt the nursing planning on the basis of the evolution of the patient's problems;
- supervision the healthcare activities assigned to the support staff;
- manage the information systems, both on paper and digital, of assistance support;
- document the nursing in accordance with legal and ethical principles;
- give to the patient and his/her closest persons important and update information on his/her health state;
- arrange the conditions for the patient's discharge by cooperating with the team members;
- use tools of professional integration (team meetings and case discussion);
- work in an integrated way within the team respecting the competence spaces of each one;
- ensure an effective physical and psychosocial environment for the patient's safety;
- use the protection procedures from the physical, chemical, and biological risk in the work environments;
- adopt preventive measures for the manual movement of loads;
- adopt preventive measures for contagious risk (standard preventive measures) in hospitals and communities;
- supervise and monitor the patient's clinical and psychosocial situation, early identifying signals of worsening;
- activate the interventions needed to manage severe and/or critical situations;
- detect the factors that cause a new worsening in chronic patients;
- activate and manage a helping and therapeutic relationship with the patient and his/her relatives and closest persons;
- manage the healthcare processes in the respect of cultural, ethnical, generational, and gender differences;
- support, in cooperation with the team, the patient and his/her family in the terminal stage and when he/she dies;
- activate informal healthcare networks to support the patient and his/her family in projects of long-term therapies;
- manage and support the patient and his/her family in home care and hospital-territory continuity;
- activate and support cross research procedures and procedures of Evidence Based Practice (EBP).
In connection to these specific learning outcomes, the training, mainly divided into specific courses, guarantees an unitary - and in the same time interdisciplinary - view of the educational goals, with an additional in-depth analysis of a knowledge resulting from the characterising disciplinary areas, even the more specifically professionalising ones, and from the similar and supplementary disciplinary areas. In accordance with the DM 19 February 2009, each course includes an appropriate number of credits in order to avoid a fragmentation of the information supplied to students. The planned educational forms include lectures, seminars, work and discussion groups on pertinent themes and simulations aimed at achieving the Course's outcomes. The teaching process will make use of modern didactic tools. In addition to the traditional didactic activities, there will be guided internships in public specialised healthcare services and other structures important from a scientific standpoint and useful to achieve the learning outcomes, both in Italy and abroad, with special agreements. Such a training allows students to progressively take on responsibilities and professional independence; doing so, students acquire the ability to evaluate the various issues connected to nursing, to plan the proper nursing, and to be integrated in a work group in cooperation with the various figures implied in the healthcare assistance in the various contexts of public healthcare.
Workshop activities and the internship are carried out under the supervision and the guide of professional tutors specifically designed on the basis of important communication skills and adequately trained for this role. Workshop activities and the internship are coordinated by a teacher of the highest educational level planned for the profiles of the specific class.
The study plan includes not more than 20 exams and/or final evaluations, organised as integrated exams or coordinated modules. The verification of such a learning will take place by means of exams in the form not only of the traditional oral and written ones, but also of mid-term tests (tests of self-evaluation and mid-term oral tests), aimed at verifying the acquired knowledge.
Regarding the written tests, the used tools are: (1) multiple choice questions or questions with short written answers on interdisciplinary topics, followed by exams aimed at verifying the acquired knowledge; (2) written compositions on assigned topics and analyses of activities, compositions related to the final test, and reports of the exercises.
The School Regulations establish, in the respect of the normative limits, that the amount of time at student's disposal for personal study or other individual educational activities is not less than the 50% of the 30 hours planned for each ECTS.
The educational programme is continually organised, monitored, validated, and improved, with the purpose to help students acquire competences, knowledge, and abilities included into the curricular profile regulated by the laws in force and the Course's specific goals. These educational goals are supported by a teaching group aware of the need of using all institutional tools activated by the competent organisms, in order to validate the quality of didactics. With these tools, it will be possible to measure the improvement of the didactic performance in all its stages contributing to graduation, in terms of educational programme, exams, quality evaluation perceived by students, and acquisition of professional competences included in the Course's specific goals.

Graduates should prove to be independent in making judgements by applying the following abilities:
- making decisions on the healthcare priorities in relation to the verification and planning of the goals on the patients' main health problems;
- highlighting the connected factors and the defining characteristics aimed at planning proper healthcare interventions;
- evaluating the progress of therapies in cooperation with the interdisciplinary team;
- making healthcare decisions;
- critically evaluating the results of the healthcare decisions, monitoring the patient's outcomes and the healthcare standards supplied;
- making healthcare decisions by means of an evidence based approach to solve the patient's problems.

Educational methods and activities, didactic tools to achieve the expected outcomes:
- classes;
- exercises with application;
- videos and presentation of pictures, diagrams, materials, and graphs;
- construction of cognitive maps;
- case discussion in groups with presentations in plenary sessions;
- internship with experiences supervised by tutors in various contexts and with a progressive assumption of autonomy and responsibility;
- debriefing sessions to reflect on and re-elaborate experiences of professional practice.

Evaluation tools to verify the achievement of the expected outcomes:
- written and oral exams, tests of cases in stages, project work, reports;
- evaluation feedbacks during the internship (by means of a portfolio, structured assessment forms, and clinical reports on the professional practice);
- objective structured exam in stations.


Graduates should develop the following communication skills:
- using proper communication skills (verbal, nonverbal, and written) with patients of every sort and with their families in a healthcare process and/or with other healthcare professionals;
- being able to activate actions of communicative mirroring in order to be in tune with the patient, directly involve him/her, clarify doubts, and overcome difficulties connected to the effects of an illness;
- using proper communication methods in a multi-professional team;
- using principles of teaching and learning for specific informational or educational interventions towards single patients, families, groups, and other professionals (support operators, nurse students, nurses);
- supporting and encouraging the patients towards health decisions, strengthening abilities of coping, self-confidence, and the available resources;
- managing conflicts resulting from different positions;
- facilitating the coordination of assistance to achieve the planned healthcare outcomes;
- cooperating with the healthcare team to plan operative methods and to realise the development and application of procedures and guidelines.

Educational methods and activities, didactic tools to achieve the expected outcomes:
- classes;
- critical analysis of videos, simulations, accounts, and experiences;
- case discussion and discussion of paradigmatic relational situations in groups with presentations in plenary sessions;
- internship with experiences supervised by tutors in various contexts with debriefing sessions to reflect on and re-elaborate relational experiences with the patients and the team.

Evaluation tools to verify the achievement of the expected outcomes:
- observation of frames of films, passages of written compositions, and dialogues with structured grids;
- evaluation feedbacks during the internship (by means of a portfolio, structured assessment forms, and clinical reports);
- objective structured exam in stations with simulations on relational competences

Graduates should develop the following self-learning abilities:
- developing abilities of independent study;
- showing the ability to have doubts and tolerate uncertainties resulting from study and practical activities;
- developing the ability to ask questions on one's activity that are pertinent in times, places and interlocutors;
- showing the ability to continuously search for self-learning opportunities;
- showing self-evaluation skills on one's competences and establish one's needs of development and learning;
- showing skills in collaborative learning and in sharing knowledge within the work teams;
- showing skills and independence in searching for information needed to solve problems or uncertainties of one's profession, critically selecting primary and secondary sources of research evidences.

Educational methods and activities, didactic tools to achieve the expected outcomes:
- problem based learning;

- use of self-learning contracts and plans aimed at making the student feel responsible of the planning of his/her internship training and of self-evaluation;
- workshops of methodology of paper and online bibliographical research;
- guided reading to the critical evaluation of scientific and professional literature in English.

Evaluation tools to verify the achievement of the expected outcomes:
- project-work and reports on specific research mandate;
- tutor supervision on the internship training;
- active participation to work sessions;
- punctuality and quality in the presentation of compositions.