General Course Objectives:
• The aim is to learn the meaning of the relationship between structure and function of biomolecules





Part InorganicStrong and weak interactions in matter.Structure of the atom; isotopes. General properties of the elements; periodic table of elements. Nature of the chemical bond; Hybridization of atomic orbitals. Concept of the molecule. Nomenclature and structure of inorganic compounds of biomedical interest.Concentration and Properties of solutions.Homogeneous systems: the gas; relationships between volume, pressure, temperature and quantity of matter; mole concept and Avogadro's number. Condensed states of matter: liquid (and their equilibrium with the gas phase). Phase transitions. Properties of water.Mixtures and solutions; unit of measurement of the concentration of the solute in the solutions. The intermolecular interactions; hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions and Van der Waals forces; their role in the systems of biomedical importance. Property 'solutions; osmosis and osmotic pressure; its importance in medicine. Solubility of gases in liquids and its importance for the respiratory exchanges. Quantitative treatment of the main aspects of gases and solutions.Chemical processes seen in their equilibrium and dynamic.Chemical reactions: definitions. Conservation of mass, energy and electric charge.Reversibility. Concepts of enthalpy, entropy and free energy.Homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical equilibrium; equilibrium constant and the law of mass action. Le Chatelier's principle. Chemical equilibrium in biomedical processes.The rate of chemical reactions; rate constant; effect of temperature on the rate constant. Catalysis. Biomedical implications of catalysis; enzymes and Michaelis and Menten model for enzyme catalysis. Quantitative treatment of the most important aspects of the equilibrium state.Acids, bases, salts and buffers.The reaction autoprotolysis of water; the concept of pH. Acids and bases; strength of acids and bases; strength of acids and bases; Salt hydrolysis. The buffer solutions.PH indicators. Biological buffers. Acid-base titrations. Quantitative treatment of ionic equilibria.Electron transfer and bioenergetics.The reactions of oxidation-reduction. The oxidation number. Redox potential; notes on the operation of electrochemical cells; Nernst equation; potentiometric pH measurement; other potentiometric measurements of interest biomedicine. Importance of oxidation-reduction reactions in biology and medicine. Chemical aspects of breathing; the reactions of oxygen.Organic and biochemistryNomenclature, shape and symmetry of organic molecules hydrocarbons: aliphatic (saturated and unsaturated), linear and cyclic; aromatics. Heterocyclic compounds.Geometry and shape of the organic molecules.Amino acids and proteins.Property 'stereochemical and acid-base properties of amino acids. Peptide bond and polypeptide chains. Disulfide bond. Proteins: structures of primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. Mechanisms of the three-dimensional folding of proteins; denaturation and renaturation of proteins. The active site of enzymes.Sugars.Chemical nature of monosaccharides and stereoisomerism; cyclic structures and mutarotation. The glycosidic bond; disaccharides; omopolisaccaridi; heteropolysaccharides. Biological importance of sugars.Lipids.Fatty acids. Mono-, di- and triglycerides; phosphoglycerides and sphingolipids; notes on the structure of cell membranes. Cholesterol, its esters and derivatives thereof; notes on their importance in human physiology.

Course sheet
  • Academic year: 2018/2019
  • Curriculum: Curriculum unico
  • Year: First year
  • Semester: First semester
  • Parent course:
  • SSD: BIO/13
  • CFU: 1
  • Attività formative di base
  • Ambito disciplinare: Discipline generali per la formazione del medico
  • Lecture (Hours): 12
  • CFU: 1.00
  • SSD: BIO/13