Our course catalogue for the accademic year 2023/2024 is currently being updated


General expected learning outcomes
The course aims to provide the students a theoretical and practical knowledge related to research and qualitative recognition of inorganic substances of pharmacological and toxicological interest. The aim of the course is also to provide the molecular mechanisms on the pharmaceutical and toxicological properties of the aforementioned substances.

Specific expected learning outcomes
1. Knowledge and understanding
The student will study all the aspects concerning the chemical reactions used for the separation and recognition of the cations included in the 6 groups of the classical systematic approach (group I: silver, lead and mercury; II group: lead, mercury, arsenic, antimony, tin, bismuth , copper, cadmium; III group: aluminium, iron, chrome, manganese; group IV: manganese, zinc, nickel, cobalt; V group: calcium, barium, strontium; group VI: magnesium, sodium, lithium, potassium) as well as anions identifiable by the research in the alkaline solution (sulphate, nitrate, chloride, bromide, iodide and oxalate). Moreover, the student will be able to apply theoretically/practically the concepts concerning the acid-base equilibria, hydrolysis, complexation, precipitation, redox reduction and be able to evaluate all the related interdependencies for the purpose of the recognition of inorganic compounds. Additionally, the student will be able to understand the molecular biological mechanisms in which cations and inorganic anions take part.

2. Applying knowledge and understanding
At the end of the course, the student will be able to separate and analyse an inorganic cation or anion mixture through the application and interpretation of chemical essays. For this purpose it will be essential to know and apply the different chemical reactivity for the separation and identification of the ions (changes in pH, complexation, precipitation and redox). The practical laboratory exercises will allow the student to learn how to apply and observe what was already covered during the lectures. Knowledge of the properties and reactivity of inorganic substances will allow the student not only to understand the biological, pharmacological and toxicological functions of these substances, but also to design and / or identify possible approaches for solving relative problems. The knowledge of the most widespread therapeutic problems and pharmaceutical solutions of inorganic type (essential micronutrient elements integrators) available for the treatment of the main pathologies associated with deficiency or intoxication will make the student able to make the right decision and to give rational advice for the use of these pharmaceuticals in the field of human health.

3. Making judgements
The lecturer will stimulate the students to develop a logical-critical sense by asking frequent questions (brainstorming) in class with the aim of inducing them to acquire connection skills (correlative thinking) between the various concepts defined in the syllabus leading to the mastery of the subject, connecting the chemical pharmaceutical and toxicological analysis as an integral part with a link to other disciplines already studied (general and inorganic chemistry, physics, anatomy, biology) or to be followed in the future educational path (biochemistry, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, toxicology). The lecturer will periodically ask students to develop discussions/theses related to key topics discussed in class, in order to get them used to design scientific research.
At the end of the course the students will be able to formulate an analytical/critical judgment, interpret and correlate complex concepts, design a research related to the topics covered in order to expand scientific, ethical and social knowledge.

4. Communication skills
Through the acquisition of knowledge and understanding, the ability to apply them and to propose a critical judgment on the topics dealt with, but also through the use of the relative scientific language used by the lecturer during the course and the frequent stimulation of the communication lesson, the student will be able to communicate with cognitive and linguistic-perceptive depth with his peers and/or with both the scientific and non-scientific community also of different cultural origin.

5. Learning skills
The student who has acquired the abilities described above will be able to undertake future studies in a more autonomous, self-managed and rapid manner, but also to propose social and/or working contexts useful for the scientific progress of society in the field of human health.


A - L



1. General. Scales, purposes and methods of inorganic qualitative analysis. The dry way: theoretical assumptions. Nature of radiant energy. Quantization of energy. Radiation-matter interaction. Dry essays for the research of cations and anions: flame tests, pearl tests, tests in the tube. Specific recognition tests. The wet way: theoretical assumptions. Chemical characteristics of the compounds. The states of matter. Solids and liquids ionic, metallic, molecular; covalent solids; amorphous solids. Safety in laboratories: chemical risk.(14 hours of frontal lesson will be devoted to this part of the programme)
2. Thermodynamics of solutions. Solubility of solids in liquids; miscibility between liquids; solubility of gas in liquids. The equilibria in solution: A) Hydrolysis equilibria. Types of salts and corresponding types of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis of anion. Degree of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis of the cation. Hydrolysis at controlled pH . Simultaneous hydrolysis of cation and anion. B) Complexation equilibria. Coordination compounds (complexes). Chelates. The chemical bond in the coordination compounds: theories of the valence bond, of the crystalline field and of the molecular orbitals. Stability of the complexes; the instability constant. Masking effect of the complexes. Effect of pH on complexing equilibria: metal hydrolysis; hydrolysis of the ligand . Relationship between hydrolysis that undergoes a complex and its stability. Changes in pH due to formation of complexes. (16 hours of frontal lesson will be devoted to this part of the programme)
3. Precipitation balances. Solubility; solubility product. Common ion effect . Dynamics of the formation of precipitates; crystalline and colloidal precipitates. Physical and chemical factors that influence the formation of precipitates: temperature, ionic strength of the solution, hydrolysis, pH of the solution. Pollution of precipitates; co-precipitation and post-precipitation . Adsorption, isomorphic substitution and occlusion. Aging of precipitates. Precipitation and hydrolysis; amphoteric hydroxides. Precipitation and complexation: silver halides and ammonia; Ni2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ and ammonia; separation Cu2+ / Cd2+. Equilibria oxido- reduction. General information on redox reactions. Influence of pH on redox reactions. Influence of the formation of precipitates (case of HgS ) and of complexes (case of the recognition of Bi3+with Sn(OH)3 on redox reactions) 4. Classical systematics: reactions for the research and recognition of cations and anions. Italian pharmacopoeia IX and X ed.: identification reactions for cations and inorganic anions (18 hours of frontal lesson will be devoted to this part of the programme)
5. Principles of General Pharmaceutical Chemistry of inorganic compounds. Definition of medication and medicine. Therapeutic Index. Absorption, distribution, metabolism (phase 1 and phase 2) and drug excretion. 2. Principles of general Toxicology. Definition of acute and chronic intoxication. Mechanisms of pharmacological and toxic action. Antidotes for heavy metal poisoning. Special Part: A) Heavy Metal Poisoning: Lead, Mercury, Silver, Cadmium, Bismuth, Antimony, Nickel. B) Pharmacological and toxicological properties of Arsenic (arsenic trioxide in the treatment of APL ). C) Pharmacological and toxicological properties of ions of biological interest: Copper, Tin, Aluminium (neurodegenerative activity), Iron (pathological haemoglobin and haemoglobin), Manganese, Chromium, Cobalt, Calcium, Barium, Magnesium, Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Ammonium, Halides, Nitrates, Oxalates, Sulphates, Carbonates, Acetates, Borates. (8 hours of frontal lesson will be devoted to this part of the programme)
6. Laboratory exercises: Flame test with a platinum wire: recognition of sodium (Na), lithium (Li), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), copper (Cu). Pearl test: recognition of cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu). Essays in a test tube: reversible change of colour; Melting properties; Formation of sublimates; Decomposition with development of gaseous products. Special essays: Carbonic acid, Acetic acid, Boric acid and ammonium ion. Systematic analysis of the cations of the I group: Ag +, Pb2 + and Hg22 +. Systematic analysis of cations of group III: Al3 +, Cr3 +, Fe3 + and Mn2 +. Systematic analysis of cations of group V: Ca2 +, Sr2 + and Ba2 +. Systematic analysis of cations of group VI: Mg2 +, Na +, K + and Li + .Analysis of anions: Research of sulfuric acid, Research of nitric acid, Research of chlorides, Research of bromides and iodides, Research of oxalates. Recognition of cations and anions as described the Official Pharmacopoeia. (60 hours)

Adopted texts

The teacher suggests to choose the foolowing text book for studying the course's programme:

1) Fedele Manna. Analisi dei Medicinali. Parte prima, 1996 CISU ed. Roma.
2) Fedele Manna. Analisi dei Medicinali. Guida pratica di laboratorio, 2000 CISU ed. Roma
2) Antonio Araneo. Chimica analitica qualitativa. Metodo periodale. Terza edizione, 1993 Ambrosiana. Distribuzione esclusiva Zanichelli.
3) Arnaldo Peloso. Analisi Chimica Qualitativa Inorganica, 1991 Cortina ed. Padova.
4) Paolo Barbetti & Maria Giovanna Quaglia. L'Analisi Qualitativa in Chimica Farmaceutica e Tossicologica Inorganica, 1992 Galeno ed. Perugia.
5) F.U. Italiana XII ed.
6) Cristina Marzano, Claudio Medana. Chimica Tossicologica, 2017 Piccin.


Indispensable: knowledge of General and Inorganic Chemistry Important: know the basic concepts of Mathematics and Physics Useful: know the concepts of Anatomy as well asPlant and Animal Biology

Study modes

The teaching will be carried out with lectures in the classroom through the use of a computer with which slides in Power Point / PDF presentations will be projected. The teacher will also use the internet for any further information on the different contents covered, when he deems it appropriate. It will accompany a purely theoretical part a part of frontal exercises and a part of practical laboratory exercises.

Frequency modes

Attendance to frontal teaching will not be compulsory but recommended, while that relating to practical laboratory exercises will be.

Exam modes

The assessment methods of the course are characterized by: a) an evaluation of the actual status of knowledge (during the course), following the didactic / training path; to achieve this the lecturer organizes monthly multiple choice or open questions related to the content already treated at lessons; the primary purpose of these tests lies in the contribution to the student's human and intellectual growth, as well as the provision of feedback to the teacher on the effectiveness and clarity of the lessons; b) a final evaluation foreseen in the various exam sessions in which the teacher will carry out a series of questions aimed at establishing whether the student has acquired mastery of the subject of teaching, the skills and competences. To questions, also of a correlative type between the various topics, the student answers both in writing and orally.

Exam reservation date start Exam reservation date end Exam date
09/01/2023 22/01/2023 23/01/2023
13/02/2023 19/02/2023 20/02/2023
27/02/2023 05/03/2023 06/03/2023
03/04/2023 16/04/2023 17/04/2023
01/05/2023 14/05/2023 15/05/2023
12/06/2023 18/06/2023 19/06/2023
10/07/2023 16/07/2023 17/07/2023
11/09/2023 17/09/2023 18/09/2023
13/11/2023 19/11/2023 20/11/2023

M - Z



First Part – Introduction (6 hours)
1. Contacts and office hours 2. Course features 3. Class hours 4. Exam procedure 5. Exam sessions. 6. Acquired competences 7. Exam requirements 8. Course organization 9. Laboratory practice 10. Books 11. Student evaluation

Second Part – Laboratory Safety (16 hours)
1. Laws 2. Risk of chemical agents 3. Risk prevention 4. Classification, labelling and packaging 5. Symbols 6. Material safety data sheet 7. Exposure limits 8. Individual protection devices 9. Safety signs 10. Chemical laboratory code of conduct 11. Accidental contact with a chemical agent 12. Learning verification and certification

Third Part – Basics (12 hours)
1. Chemical bonds and properties 2. Compound colours 3. Inorganic analysis 4. Laboratory operations 5. Solutions 6. Chemical equilibrium in solution 7. Acidity and basicity 8. Precipitation 9. Precipitation and pH influence 10. Oxidation and reduction 11. Oxidoreduction and pH influence 12. Oxidoreduction and precipitation

Fourth Part – Inorganic Analysis (18 hours)
1. Introduction to analysis 2. Introduction to cation analysis 3. First analytical group and insoluble residue 4. Second analytical group 5. Third analytical group 6. Fourth analytical group 7. Fifth analytical group 8. Sixth analytical group 9. Introduction to anion analysis 10. First analytical group 11. Second analytical group 12. Third analytical group 13. Simplified process for anion identification

Fifth Part – Compounds of Pharmaceutical and Toxicological Interest (4 hours)
1. Introduction 2. Cations of pharmaceutical interest 3. Anions of pharmaceutical interest 4. Compounds of pharmaceutical and toxicological interest

Sixth Part – Italian and European Pharmacopoeia (2 hours)
1. Italian Pharmacopoeia 2. European Pharmacopoeia 3. Medicamenta

Seventh Part – Laboratory Practice (60 hours)
1. Delivery of laboratory equipment 2. Flame test 3. Tube test 4. Other tests 5. Cation analysis 6. Anion analysis 7. Identification of inorganic compounds according to Pharmacopoeia 8. Identification of unknown inorganic compound and redelivery of laboratory equipment

Adopted texts

A. Araneo. Chimica analitica qualitativa. 3rd Edition, 1993, Ambrosiana Milano, Italy.
D. C. Harris. Fondamenti di chimica analitica quantitativa. 1st Edition, 2017, Zanichelli, Italy.
D. C. Harris. Chimica analitica quantitativa. 3rd Edition, 2017, Zanichelli, Italy.
Savelli F.; Bruno O. Analisi chimico-farmaceutica. 1st Edition, 2005, Piccin, Italy.
D. S. Hage; J. D. Carr. Chimica analitica e analisi quantitativa. 1st Edition, 2012, Piccin, Italy.
A. Peloso. Analisi chimica qualitativa inorganica. Vol I. 1st Edition, 1991, Libreria Cortina Padova, Italy.
A. Peloso. Analisi chimica qualitativa inorganica. Vol II. 1st Edition, 1991, Libreria Cortina Padova, Italy.
F. Manna. Analisi dei medicinali. Parte prima. 2nd Edition, 1996, CISU, Italy.
F. Manna. Analisi dei medicinali. Guida pratica di laboratorio. 1st Edition, 2000, CISU, Italy.
P. Barbetti; M. G. Quaglia. L’analisi qualitativa in chimica farmaceutica e tossicologica inorganica. 1st Edition, 1992, Margiacchi – Galeno, Italy.
A. Gasco; F. Gualtieri; C. Melchiorre. Chimica farmaceutica. 1st Edition, 2015, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Italy.


Farmacopea Ufficiale Italiana. XII Edizione, 2008, Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato. Farmacopea Ufficiale Italiana. X Edizione, 1998, Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato. European Pharmacopoeia. 9th Edition, 2016, Council of Europe. Medicamenta. VII Edizione, 2017, Società Cooperativa Farmaceutica.


Indispensable: knowledge of General and Inorganic Chemistry Important: know the basic concepts of Mathematics and Physics Useful: know the concepts of Anatomy as well as Plant and Animal Biology

Frequency modes

Attendance of frontal lessons is optional, but strongly recommended. Attendance of laboratory practice exercises is mandatory.

Exam modes

The assessment methods are characterized by an oral exam session set for each month of the year, excluding the month of August, and an experimental exam test concerning the laboratory practice exercises carried out immediately after the end of the course.
For each call published on Infostud, lecturer is fully available to postpone the exam.
The elements taken into consideration for the assessment are: knowledge of the subject in all the parts described in the exam program, use of an appropriate scientific language, active participation during the frontal lessons and laboratory exercises, ability of reasoning during the oral exam, and the ability to study independently on the texts indicated.
Sufficient knowledge of the topics covered, in the various parts of the exam program, is required to pass the exam with minimum score (18/30). To achieve a score of 30/30 cum laude, the student must instead demonstrate that he/she has acquired an excellent knowledge of all the topics covered during the course, being able to connect them in a logical and consistent manner. Student must also demonstrate that he/she has mastered the matter, moving within it with security, appropriateness and simplicity.

Exam reservation date start Exam reservation date end Exam date
16/01/2023 22/01/2023 27/01/2023
13/02/2023 19/02/2023 24/02/2023
20/02/2023 26/02/2023 03/03/2023
20/03/2023 29/03/2023 03/04/2023
01/04/2023 09/04/2023 14/04/2023
24/04/2023 30/04/2023 05/05/2023
05/06/2023 11/06/2023 16/06/2023
03/07/2023 09/07/2023 14/07/2023
28/08/2023 03/09/2023 08/09/2023
18/09/2023 27/09/2023 02/10/2023
30/10/2023 05/11/2023 10/11/2023
27/11/2023 03/12/2023 08/12/2023
25/12/2023 03/01/2024 08/01/2024
Course sheet
  • Academic year: 2022/2023
  • Curriculum: Curriculum unico
  • Year: Second year
  • Semester: First semester
  • SSD: CHIM/08
  • CFU: 10
  • Attività formative caratterizzanti
  • Ambito disciplinare: Discipline Chimiche, Farmaceutiche e Tecnologiche
  • Lecture (Hours): 56
  • Lab (Hours): 60
  • CFU: 10.00
  • SSD: CHIM/08