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Objectives

The main objectives are the knowledge of the fundamental concepts of general chemistry and the skill to address numerical exercises relevant to the application of these concepts.

More specific objectives are the knowledge and application of fundamental concepts concerning the atomic structure, the chemical bond, the geometry and structure of molecules, the states of matter and their properties, the transitions phase, the main laws of thermodynamics and kinetics, the equilibria in solution and in the gas phase, the acids, bases and titration, the solubility equilibria, the electrochemistry and its application.

Further objectives are the ability to connect the acquired knowledge, the ability to communicate what the student has learnt, the ability to understand the contents of the following chemistry courses.

### Channels

### A - D

### GIULIA DE PETRIS Teacher profile

#### Programme

1-Matter and transformations; atoms: elements, nuclides, isotopes; molecules: formulas, elemental composition; mixtures, substances. Atomic structure; electronic structure of atoms: the atomic spectra, orbitals and their energy; electron configuration of the elements (aufbau); periodic table and properties of the elements. Electronic configuration. (8 h)

2-Chemical bond and theories. Different types of bonds, energy and length. Molecular orbitals and hybrid orbitals. Resonance. (8 h)

3-Geometry and structure of typical molecules. Intermolecular bonding. (5 h)

4-States of matter. Gas, liquid and solid state. The gas laws. Kinetic theory. Volatility of liquids and their properties. (5 h)

5-Elements of thermochemistry. Principles of thermodynamics. Thermochemistry. The Hess Law. The Equilibrium. The thermodynamic criteria for spontaneous or equilibrium processes. The Clausius Clapeyron law. (10 h)

6-Solutions and their properties. Phase transitions. Phase equilibria. (6 h)

7-Chemical equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle. Electrolites and their properties. (8 h)

8-Acids and bases. Acid-base equilibria theories. Titrations. pH calculations. Solubility and equilibria. (16 h)

9-Basics of electrochemistry: conductivity, voltaic and electrolytic cells. Redox ractions. Nernst equation. (4 h)

10-Chemical kinetics, kinetic constants, dependence of the rate constant on the temperature. The Arrehnius equation. Catalysis. (4 h)

Inorganic chemistry.

Stoichiometry

1-Calculations methods. Figures. Atomic weigth. Isotopic abundance and molecular weigth. The mole concept. (2 h)

2-Chemical equations. Oxidation number and redox reactions. Oxidation number. Equivalent weigth. (4 h)

3-Solutions and concentration units. Dilution and mixing of solutions. Density. (3 h)

4-Gas phase: volume, pressure and temperature.The laws of Boyle, Charles and Gay-Lussac, the Avogadro's principle.The ideal gases equation. Partial pressures and the Dalton's law. (3 h)

5-Electrolites. Vapor pressure, the Raoult's law, the osmostic pressure. Electrolytic dissociation. Strong and weak electrolytes. Dissociation degree. (4 h)

6-Chemical equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle. Gaseous dissocaition. Equilibrium constants. (6 h)

7-Acid-base equilibria. pH. Strong and weak acids and bases. pH calculations. Poliprotic acids. Buffer solutions. Salts. Titration. (10 h)

8-Solubility equilibria. The effect of pH on the solubility. (2 h)

9-Electrolysis and Faraday's laws.The Nernst equation. (2 h)

#### Adopted texts

F. Cacace, U. Croatto - Istituzioni di Chimica

F. Cacace, Schiavello - Stechiometria

The recommended texts are sufficient to provide the necessary knowledge of the topics covered in the course.

The students are strongly encouraged to enrich their knowledge utilizing any other text at their disposal, even if not present in the suggested bibliography, in order to make comparisons of different texts and make the best personal synthesis.

#### Bibliography

Kotz, Treichel, Weaver: Chimica P. Silvestroni: Fondamenti di Chimica Nivaldo J. Tro: CHIMICA P. Atkins, L. Jones: FONDAMENTI DI CHIMICA GENERALE

#### Prerequisites

Basic knowledge of mathematics: elementary calculations, powers and logarithms, first and second degree equations, exponentials, limits, derivatives, integrals and functions.

#### Study modes

The teaching activities are organized in lectures in the classroom, resolution of numerical exercises and small groups exercises. In the lectures the fundamental concepts, the laws and their demonstrations are illustrated. To stimulate the students about the connections between the various issues addressed, they are involved to allow a first self-assessment of the ability to express themselves and communicate what they have learned. In the numerical exercises the calculation methods and the solutions of stoichiometric problems are illustrated, to learn how to apply the studied laws. In small groups exercises, the numerical exercises are carried out to verify the acquired level of learning. Due to the COVID emergency, the most of the lessons have been done by powerpoint files.

#### Exam modes

The assessment takes place at the end of the course by a written test (lasting three hours) and an oral one, aimed at verifying the ability to apply the acquired knowledge to practical problems of stoichiometry and also verifying the general knowledge acquired.

Since there are no limits to the number of sustainable tests during the year, the written tests have the twofold function of examination and self-assessment of the degree of knowledge acquired, in case the student does not want the test is validated.

Exams are held during the exam periods provided for in the university teaching regulations, while intermediate tests are not in progress so as not to interfere with the regular attendance of the semester lessons, as established by the study program board.

Other elements such as the language, the critical capacity, the reasoning skills, the ability to summarize the arguments and make connections concur to determine the final vote in its graduality.

Exam reservation date start | Exam reservation date end | Exam date |
---|---|---|

03/02/2023 | 14/02/2023 | 16/02/2023 |

05/04/2023 | 18/04/2023 | 20/04/2023 |

07/04/2023 | 20/06/2023 | 22/06/2023 |

01/07/2023 | 12/07/2023 | 14/07/2023 |

05/09/2023 | 19/09/2023 | 21/09/2023 |

05/11/2023 | 21/11/2023 | 23/11/2023 |

06/01/2024 | 23/01/2024 | 25/01/2024 |

### CHIARA SALVITTI Teacher profile

#### Programme

Experimental Measures. Unit of measure. Weight ratios in chemical combinations. Atomic weight, isotopic abundance, molecular weight, formal weight. Mole concept. Chemical formulas. Chemical equations and their quantitative significance. Balancing chemical equations. Oxidation number. Oxidation-Reduction and Balancing Reactions. Quantitative relationships between substances involved in a reaction. Solutions. Concentration and its units: molarity, molarity, molar fraction, percent by weight, percent by volume. Dilution and mixing of solutions. Density. The gaseous state: units relative to volume, pressure and temperature. The laws of the ideal gas: the ideal gas state equation. Avogadro's Principle. Gas mixtures. Partial pressures. Dalton Law. Colligative properties. Colligative Properties of Non-Electrolyte Solutions. Electrolytic dissociation. Weak and strong electrolits. Degree of dissociation. Effect of electrolytic dissociation on colligative properties. (van't Hoff). Thermal dissociation. Degree of dissociation. Indirect analysis. Mass action law. Different forms of equilibrium constant and their relationships. Equilibria in a homogeneous and heterogeneous phase. Application of the Le Chatelier principle. Mass Action law on Electrolyte. Ostwald Law. Acid-base reactions. Ionic water product. Definition of pH and pOH. Acid solutions and strong bases; of weak monoprotic acids and bases. Dissolution of polyprotic acids. Buffer solutions. Acid-base equilibria in saline solutions: salts of strong acid and weak base and of weak acid and strong base. Salts of polyprotic acids and anfolites. Solubility equilibria. Solubility and solubility product. Common ion effect. Condition of formation of precipitates. Galvanic cell. Normal potential. Nernst's equation. Various types of electrodes and their applications.

Tests of past exams are carried out during the lessons.

#### Adopted texts

Cacace, M. Schiavello “Stechiometria” Bulzoni Editore

#### Bibliography

R. H. Petrucci, F. G. Herring, J. D. Madura, C. Bissonnette “Chimica generale” Piccin

#### Prerequisites

It is important to master the following preliminary knowledge: • Fundamental concepts of elementary algebra, use of powers and logarithms, methods for the resolution of first- and second-degree equations, and systems of linear equations. Elements of mathematical analysis (limits, derivatives, integrals, functions); • Elements of physics (mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism).

#### Study modes

Lessons take place face to face and will be accessible remotely via live streaming. In each lesson the teacher will briefly introduce the theoretical topics already addressed by the student and will carry out targeted numerical exercises.

#### Frequency modes

Attendance to the course is optional, but strongly recommended.

#### Exam modes

The purpose of the exam consists in verifying the level of understanding and deepening on the subject exposed during the course. It also intends to evaluate the student's reasoning skills and the ability to summarize the arguments carried out in the vision of an organic framework of the subject.

The exam consists of a written test for the resolution of numerical exercises after which, a few days later, there is the oral exam. The student also has the possibility to defer the oral exam up to two appeals after the one in which he/she passed the written exam.

Exams are held during the exam periods provided for in the university teaching regulations, while intermediate tests are not in progress so as not to interfere with the regular attendance of the semester lessons, as established by the study program board.

### E - O

### MARIA ELISA CRESTONI Teacher profile

#### Programme

Introductory notions. Subject of chemical research. Chemical phenomena. Fundamental laws of chemistry. Symbols and chemical notation. Amount. Atomic theory. Atoms and their properties. Mass and atomic weight. Avogadro's number. Atomic structure. Atomic spectra. Bohr model. Corpuscular and wave nature of the electron. Quantum numbers. Atomic orbitals. Electronic configuration. Chemical bond: concept of valence. The different types of bonds and their properties: order, energy, bond distance, dipolar moment. Valence bond theory and molecular orbitals. Hybrid orbitals, resonance. Structure of some typical molecules. Intermolecular bonds. States of aggregation and changes of state. Gaseous, liquid and solid state. Solutions and their colligative properties. Balance between phases and phase rules. Le Chatelier's principle. Basics of thermodynamics. Concept of balance. Principles of thermodynamics. Some thermodynamic functions. Thermochemistry. Chemical reactions and equilibria. Thermodynamic criteria for spontaneity and equilibrium in chemical transformations. Mass action law. Factors that influence the position of equilibrium. Electrolytic dissociation. Electrolytes and their properties in solution. Acids and bases. Definition and theories on acid-base equilibria. Relations between molecular structure and acid-base properties. Acid-base equilibria in aqueous solutions. Titulations. Indicators. Solubility. Solubility equilibria and factors that influence them. Partition equilibria. Electrochemical reactions. Redox reactions. Potentials, normal potentials, electromotive force, semi-elements, batteries, Nernst equation. Various types of electrolysis. Elements of kinetics. Speed, order, molecularity of a reaction, kinetic constant and its dependence on temperature. Arrhenius equation, activation energy. Basic notes on the theory of collisions and activated complexes. Catalysis. Outline of inorganic chemistry. Systematic nomenclature. Typical elements and their main compounds.

Stoichiometry exercises linked to the course. Notes on calculation methods. Exponential notation of numbers and relative elementary operations. Experimental measures and significant-figures. Logarithms. Unit of measure. Weight ratios in chemical combinations. Atomic weight, isotopic abundance, molecular weight, formal weight. Concept of mole. Chemical formulas. Law of definite proportions, law of multiple proportions, law of combination weights. Chemical equations and their quantitative significance. Balance of chemical equations. Oxidation number. Redox reactions and their balance. Equivalent weight of combination, neutralization and redox. Quantitative relationships between substances participating in a reaction. The solutions. Concentration and its units: molarity, normality, molality, mole fraction, weight percent, volume percent. Dilution and mixing of solutions. Density. Volumetric analysis. Titled solutions. The gaseous state: units relating to volume, pressure and temperature. The laws of ideal gases: Boyle's law, Charles's law, Gay-Lussac's law. Avogadro's principle. Equation of state of ideal gases. Density. Relative density. Gas mixtures. Partial pressures. Dalton's law. Colligative properties. Colligative properties of non-electrolyte solutions: vapor pressure, Raoult's law, ebullioscope rise and cryoscopic lowering, osmotic pressure. Electrolytic dissociation.

#### Adopted texts

For the theory:

- M. Schiavello, L. Palmisano “Fundamentals of Chemistry” EdiSES

- R. H. Petrucci et al. "General Chemistry" Piccin

- F.Cacace, U. Croatto “Chemistry Institutions” La Sapienza Editrice

- Paolo Silvestroni «General chemistry», Fifth edition, Zanichelli

For stoichiometry:

- F. Cacace, M. Schiavello “Stechiometria” Bulzoni Editore Rome

#### Bibliography

Kotz “Chemistry” EdiSES

#### Prerequisites

A basic knowledge of the main concepts learned during the course of Maths. There are no prerequisites.

#### Study modes

The course includes lessons relating to the topics listed in the program divided as follows: - 70 hours of frontal lessons - 36 hours of exercises - 16 hours of teaching in small groups The teaching material of the lectures (slides and scientific articles discussed in class) is available on the elearning page of the course: https://elearning.uniroma1.it/course/view.php?id=835 At this address are also published: the program and the recommended textbooks, the office hours, the lesson time, the links on the Meet platform for the lessons (meet.google.com/bnu-hjoa-bxr), the procedures for the online examination.

#### Exam modes

The final evaluation consists of a written test with 5 questions which, if passed, admits to the oral test.

Exam reservation date start | Exam reservation date end | Exam date |
---|---|---|

18/01/2023 | 19/02/2023 | 21/02/2023 |

18/03/2023 | 17/04/2023 | 20/04/2023 |

20/05/2023 | 24/06/2023 | 26/06/2023 |

15/06/2023 | 15/07/2023 | 17/07/2023 |

20/08/2023 | 22/09/2023 | 25/09/2023 |

20/10/2023 | 21/11/2023 | 23/11/2023 |

15/12/2023 | 24/01/2024 | 26/01/2024 |

### CATERINA FRASCHETTI Teacher profile

#### Programme

Examples of written test exercises

Atomic weight, isotopic abundance, molecular weight. Mole. Chemical formulas.

Oxidation number. Balancing Redox reactions.

Concentration of solutions: molarity, molarity, mole fraction, percent composition (by mass). Dilution and mixing of solutions. Density.

The gaseous state: units relative to volume, pressure and temperature. Avogadro's law. Ideal gas equation. Density. Gas mixtures. Partial pressures. Dalton Law.

Electrolytic dissociation. Dissociation degree. Colligative Properties of non-electrolyte, strong and weak electrolytes solutions. Vapor pressure depression (Raoult Law), Boiling point elevation and freezing point depression, Osmotic Pressure.

Chemical equilibrium. The Law of Mass Action. Kc e Kp and the relationship between them. Balances in a homogeneous and heterogeneous phase. Le Chatelier’s principle in the equilibrium law: applications.

Acid-base equilibria. Ionic water product. pH. Strong acids and bases solutions. Weak monoprotic acid and bases solutions ands. Dissolution of polyprotic acids. Buffer solutions. Hydrolysis of salts and pH. Salts of polyprotic acids.

Solubility. Solubility product expression. Common ion effect. Condition of formation of precipitates.

Cells. Half-cell and their representation. Normal potential. Nernst's equation. Various types of electrodes and their applications.

#### Adopted texts

"Stechiometria . Chimica generale attraverso gli esercizi" di A. Filippi, ALE Edition

"Stechiometria" di F. Cacace, M. Schiavello, Bulzoni Edition

#### Prerequisites

Properties of exponents and logarithms Basic algebra concepts (first and second degree equations)

#### Study modes

The course has the following organization: • resolution of numerical problems in the classroom The student will find on the e-learning platform the slides and teaching material (examination procedures, program, recommended texts) useful for the preparation of the exam. It is understood that the slides are a guide to the exam topics, but can never replace the recommended texts and lectures given by the teacher.

#### Frequency modes

in person

#### Exam modes

Refer to what described by Prof. Simonetta Fornarini

### P - Z

### PIERLUIGI GIACOMELLO

#### Programme

1-Matter and transformations; atoms: elements, nuclides, isotopes; molecules: formulas, elemental composition; mixtures, substances. Atomic structure; electronic structure of atoms: the atomic spectra, orbitals and their energy; electron configuration of the elements (aufbau); periodic table and properties of the elements. Electronic configuration. (8 h)

2-Chemical bond and theories. Different types of bonds, energy and length. Molecular orbitals and hybrid orbitals. Resonance. (8 h)

3-Geometry and structure of typical molecules. Intermolecular bonding. (5 h)

4-States of matter. Gas, liquid and solid state. The gas laws. Kinetic theory. Volatility of liquids and their properties. (5 h)

5-Elements of thermochemistry. Principles of thermodynamics. Thermochemistry. The Hess Law. The Equilibrium. The thermodynamic criteria for spontaneous or equilibrium processes. The Clausius Clapeyron law. (10 h)

6-Solutions and their properties. Phase transitions. Phase equilibria. (6 h)

7-Chemical equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle. Electrolites and their properties. (8 h)

8-Acids and bases. Acid-base equilibria theories. Titrations. pH calculations. Solubility and equilibria. (16 h)

9-Basics of electrochemistry: conductivity, voltaic and electrolytic cells. Redox ractions. Nernst equation. (4 h)

10-Chemical kinetics, kinetic constants, dependence of the rate constant on the temperature. The Arrehnius equation. Catalysis. (4 h)

Inorganic chemistry.

Stoichiometry

1-Calculations methods. Figures. Atomic weigth. Isotopic abundance and molecular weigth. The mole concept. (2 h)

2-Chemical equations. Oxidation number and redox reactions. Oxidation number. Equivalent weigth. (4 h)

3-Solutions and concentration units. Dilution and mixing of solutions. Density. (3 h)

4-Gas phase: volume, pressure and temperature.The laws of Boyle, Charles and Gay-Lussac, the Avogadro's principle.The ideal gases equation. Partial pressures and the Dalton's law. (3 h)

5-Electrolites. Vapor pressure, the Raoult's law, the osmostic pressure. Electrolytic dissociation. Strong and weak electrolytes. Dissociation degree. (4 h)

6-Chemical equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle. Gaseous dissocaition. Equilibrium constants. (6 h)

7-Acid-base equilibria. pH. Strong and weak acids and bases. pH calculations. Poliprotic acids. Buffer solutions. Salts. Titration. (10 h)

8-Solubility equilibria. The effect of pH on the solubility. (2 h)

9-Electrolysis and Faraday's laws.The Nernst equation. (2 h)

#### Adopted texts

F. Cacace, U. Croatto: Istituzioni di Chimica

F. Cacace, M. Schiavello: Stechiometria

or one of the following:

Kotz, Treichel, Weaver: Chimica

P. Silvestroni: Fondamenti di Chimica

Nivaldo J. Tro: CHIMICA

M. Speranza: CHIMICA GENERALE ED INORGANICA

P. Atkins, L. Jones: FONDAMENTI DI CHIMICA GENERALE

#### Prerequisites

Basic knowledge of mathematics: elementary calculations, powers and logarithms, first and second degree equations, exponentials, limits, derivatives, integrals and functions.

#### Study modes

The teaching activities are organized in lectures in the classroom, resolution of numerical exercises and small groups exercises. Fundamental concepts, laws and demonstrations are illustrated in the lectures. To allow the students to make connections between the various issues addressed, during the lessons they are stimulated to make a first self-assessment of the ability to express themselves and communicate what they have learned. In the numerical exercises the calculation methods and the solutions of stoichiometric problems are illustrated, to learn how to apply the studied laws. In small groups exercises, the numerical exercises are carried out to verify the acquired level of learning.

#### Exam modes

The assessment takes place at the end of the course by a written test (lasting three hours) and an oral one, aimed at verifying the ability to apply the acquired knowledge to practical problems of stoichiometry and also verifying the general knowledge acquired.

Since there are no limits to the number of sustainable tests during the year, the written tests have the twofold function of examination and self-assessment of the degree of knowledge acquired, in case the student does not want the test is validated.

Exams are held during the exam periods provided for in the university teaching regulations, while intermediate tests are not in progress so as not to interfere with the regular attendance of the semester lessons, as established by the study program board.

Other elements such as the language, the critical capacity, the reasoning skills, the ability to summarize the arguments and make connections concur to determine the final vote in its graduality.

Exam reservation date start | Exam reservation date end | Exam date |
---|---|---|

31/10/2022 | 15/02/2023 | 21/02/2023 |

31/10/2022 | 19/04/2023 | 20/04/2023 |

31/10/2022 | 21/06/2023 | 22/06/2023 |

31/10/2022 | 13/07/2023 | 17/07/2023 |

31/10/2022 | 20/09/2023 | 21/09/2023 |

31/10/2022 | 22/11/2023 | 23/11/2023 |

31/10/2022 | 24/01/2024 | 25/01/2024 |

### CHIARA SALVITTI Teacher profile

#### Programme

Experimental Measures. Unit of measure. Weight ratios in chemical combinations. Atomic weight, isotopic abundance, molecular weight, formal weight. Mole concept. Chemical formulas. Chemical equations and their quantitative significance. Balancing chemical equations. Oxidation number. Oxidation-Reduction and Balancing Reactions. Quantitative relationships between substances involved in a reaction. Solutions. Concentration and its units: molarity, molarity, molar fraction, percent by weight, percent by volume. Dilution and mixing of solutions. Density. The gaseous state: units relative to volume, pressure and temperature. The laws of the ideal gas: the ideal gas state equation. Avogadro's Principle. Gas mixtures. Partial pressures. Dalton Law. Colligative properties. Colligative Properties of Non-Electrolyte Solutions. Electrolytic dissociation. Weak and strong electrolits. Degree of dissociation. Effect of electrolytic dissociation on colligative properties. (van't Hoff). Thermal dissociation. Degree of dissociation. Indirect analysis. Mass action law. Different forms of equilibrium constant and their relationships. Equilibria in a homogeneous and heterogeneous phase. Application of the Le Chatelier principle. Mass Action law on Electrolyte. Ostwald Law. Acid-base reactions. Ionic water product. Definition of pH and pOH. Acid solutions and strong bases; of weak monoprotic acids and bases. Dissolution of polyprotic acids. Buffer solutions. Acid-base equilibria in saline solutions: salts of strong acid and weak base and of weak acid and strong base. Salts of polyprotic acids and anfolites. Solubility equilibria. Solubility and solubility product. Common ion effect. Condition of formation of precipitates. Galvanic cell. Normal potential. Nernst's equation. Various types of electrodes and their applications.

Tests of past exams are carried out during the lessons.

#### Adopted texts

Cacace, M. Schiavello “Stechiometria” Bulzoni Editore

#### Bibliography

R. H. Petrucci, F. G. Herring, J. D. Madura, C. Bissonnette “Chimica generale” Piccin

#### Prerequisites

It is important to master the following preliminary knowledge: • Fundamental concepts of elementary algebra, use of powers and logarithms, methods for the resolution of first- and second-degree equations, and systems of linear equations. Elements of mathematical analysis (limits, derivatives, integrals, functions); • Elements of physics (mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism).

#### Study modes

The course is organized as follows: - resolution of numerical problems in the classroom -self-assessment tests The student can ask the teacher for additional explanations by appointment.

#### Frequency modes

Attendance to the course is optional, but strongly recommended.

#### Exam modes

The purpose of the exam consists in verifying the level of understanding and deepening on the subject exposed during the course. It also intends to evaluate the student's reasoning skills and the ability to summarize the arguments carried out in the vision of an organic framework of the subject.

The exam consists of a written test for the resolution of numerical exercises after which, a few days later, there is the oral exam. The student also has the possibility to defer the oral exam up to two appeals after the one in which he/she passed the written exam.

Exams are held during the exam periods provided for in the university teaching regulations, while intermediate tests are not in progress so as not to interfere with the regular attendance of the semester lessons, as established by the study program board.

- Academic year: 2022/2023
- Curriculum: Curriculum unico
- Year: First year
- Semester: Second semester
- SSD: CHIM/03
- CFU: 10

- Attività formative di base
- Ambito disciplinare: Discipline Chimiche
- Exercise (Hours): 36
- Lecture (Hours): 70
- CFU: 10
- SSD: CHIM/03