Knowledge and understanding
At the end of the course the student knows the main concepts of organic chemistry needed both for the knowledge of the molecular structure and for the understanding of the reactivity of the main bio-organic compounds (carbohydrates, aminoacids, lipids, nucleotides). Moreover, he or she learns the basic concepts of stereochemistry and reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry.
Applying knowledge and understanding
At the end of the course the student knows and understands the spatial arrangement of the carbon structures and knows how to name simple molecules according to the IUPAC nomenclature; he or she is able to graphically represent the structures through the most commonly used conventions and assign the absolute configuration to the stereocenters. Furthermore, the student knows the reactivity of the functional groups according to the general scheme of the main reaction mechanisms. For more complex bio-organic structures with multiple functional groups, the student is able to predict their physical and chemical behavior.
Making judgements
At the end of the course the student is able to collect and understand information useful to express a proper independent opinion. In particular, he or she must show a critical and proposing spirit in the discussion of issues inherent to organic molecules and biologically active compounds.
Communication skills
At the end of the course the student has the ability to communicate outward the knowledge he or she has learned during the course, both toward the scientific community and the labor environment. In particular, the student must be able to provide clear and direct information on chemical reactivity, with particular emphasis on natural and bio-organic products.
Learning skills
Given the basic training activity of this course, the student who has passed the exam is able to deepen and expand the knowledge in the field, and to undertake the study of the other basic and characterizing training activities that have been set in the Master degree.





Amines. Structure. Classification and nomenclature. Physical properties. Basicity. Reaction of ammonia with alkyl halides. Synthesis: Gabriel synthesis, reductive amination. Reactions: nitrosation of amines: the diazonium salts, their reactivity and their possible applications. Sandmeyer reactions. Synthesis of azo compounds. Carbohydrates: aldose and ketose. Monosaccharides: physical properties and nomenclature. Stereochemistry. D-and L-glyceraldehyde. Fischer projections. Synthesis of Kiliani-Fischer. Stereoisomerism: epimers. Linear and cyclic structures. The hemiacetals: alpha and beta anomers. The mutarotation. Stability of hemiacetals. Anomeric effect. Reduction reaction: alditole. Oxidation reactions: aldonic or aldaric acid,. Interconversion in alkaline conditions: loss of chirality. Formation of glycosides. Disaccharides: lactose, maltose, cellobiose, sucrose. Polysaccharides: amylose and amylopectin, glycogen, cellulose. Lipids. Triglycerides. Phospholipids. Terpenes. Steroids. Alpha-amino acids. Structure, acid-base properties, isoelectric point, titration. Stereoisomerism, L-alpha-amino acids. Classification. Modified Gabriel synthesis of alpha-amino acids. Separation and identification methods. Polypeptides and proteins: the peptide bond. Primary structure and analysis of the alpha-amino acid sequence: Edman degradation and Sanger method. The nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions: mechanism. Synthesis of peptides: liquid-phase and solid-phase synthesis (Merrifield synthesis). Three-dimensional structure of peptides and proteins: secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures. Non-aromatic and aromatic heterocyclic compounds. Five-member rings (thiophene, pyrrole, furan) aromaticity and reactivity. Six -member rings (pyridine and pyrimidine): aromaticity and reactivity. Purines and pyrimidines. Nucleosides and nucleotides. Nucleic acids: RNA and DNA.

Adopted texts

Chimica Organica Essenziale, a cura di B. Botta. Edi-Ermes

Course sheet
  • Academic year: 2020/2021
  • Curriculum: Curriculum unico
  • Year: First year
  • Semester: Second semester
  • Parent course:
  • SSD: CHIM/06
  • CFU: 4
  • Attività formative di base
  • Ambito disciplinare: Discipline chimiche
  • Lecture (Hours): 32
  • CFU: 4.00
  • SSD: CHIM/06