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Objectives

This course is an introduction to chemistry fundamentals addressed to students with limited chemistry background. The purpose of the course is to provide students with the knowledge of general chemistry principles, and with the tools to solve simple chemistry problems. At the end of the course the students are expected to know ho to apply the acquired chemical concepts to different fields, including pharmaceutical chemistry and biochemistry which are the subjects of further courses.

### Channels

### CATERINA FRASCHETTI Teacher profile

#### Programme

[3 hours]

Basic concepts of Stoichiometry: The atomic and mass number. Isotopes. The atomic mass and the atomic weight. Definition of molecule. The molecular weight. Ionic compounds. The mole. Empirical formula, molecular formula and structural formula. IUPAC nomenclature.

[2 hours]

Law of definite proportions. Law of conservation of mass. Chemical equations, stoichiometric coefficients. The limiting reactant concept.

[2 hours]

The atomic structure: The quantic numbers. The s, p, d, and f orbitals. The Aufbau principle. The ionization energy and the electron affinity.

[4 hours]

The chemical bonding: Octet rule. Ionic bond. Covalent bond. Electronegativity. Hybridization (sp3, sp2, sp, sp3d, sp3d2). Dative bond. VSEPR theory and molecular geometries. Intermolecular forces (Van der Waals, dispersion, hydrogen bond).

[2 hours]

The gaseous systems: The fundamental laws of gases: Boyle, Charles, gay-Lussac and Avogadro. The ideal gas law. Mixtures of not reactive gases. Dalton’s law.

[4 hours]

The oxidation number. Redox reactions and their balancing.

[3 hours]

Basic concepts of thermodynamics: Heat and work. The first thermodynamic law. Reversible and not reversible processes. Enthalpy. Hess’s law. Spontaneous processes and entropy. The second thermodynamic law. Free energy and Gibb’s Helmotz equation.

[2 hours]

Phase transitions: Phase transition. Vapor pressure. Clausius Clapeyron equation. Phase diagram.

[4 hours]

Solutions: Molarity, molality and molar fraction. Mass and volume percentages. Dilution and mixing. Themodynamics of solutions. The Raoult’s law. Colligative properties of solutions. Boiling point elevation, freezing point depression and osmotic pressure. Van’t Hoff coefficient.

[3 hours]

Chemical equilibrium: Mass action law. Le Chatelier principle. The concentration, pressure and temperature effects on the equilibrium. Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria.

[4 hours]

Acid-base equilibrium: Definitions of Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis. Acid halides and oxyacids. Acid strength. Autoionization of water. The pH scale. Calculation of the pH for a solution of: strong acid (base), weak acid (base). Alfa and dissociation degree.

[5 hours]

Acid-base properties of a salt solution. Buffered solution.

[2 hours]

Basic concepts of chemical kinetics: Reaction rate. Collision theory. Definition of transition state. Arrhenius equation. Catalysis.

[10 hours] Numerical exercises

#### Adopted texts

Chemistry,

Zumdahl/Zumdahl

#### Prerequisites

The comprehension of the addressed topics requires: Needed The knowledge of basic algebra (first and second degree equations) and the the properties of exponents and logarithms. Useful Basic integration and derivatives rules

#### Study modes

Frontal lessons and exercises

#### Frequency modes

optional

#### Exam modes

The student will be evaluated through a final test including theroretical questions and numerical exercises.

- Academic year: 2022/2023
- Curriculum: Curriculum unico
- Year: First year
- Semester: First semester
- Parent course:

1049372 - Organic and inorganic chemistry - SSD: CHIM/03
- CFU: 6

- Attività formative di base
- Ambito disciplinare: Discipline chimiche
- Lecture (Hours): 48
- CFU: 6
- SSD: CHIM/03