Our course catalogue for the accademic year 2023/2024 is currently being updated

Objectives

General Aims
Purpose of the course is to provide the student with fundamental concepts of general and inorganic chemistry and also of stoichiometry calculations, which constitute the basis for the correct comprehension of concepts pf organic, (phyto)therapeutic and biological chemistry developed in courses held in the following semesters. It deals with the indispensable topics for a correct understanding of matter and its transformations. The course includes numerical exercises that make the student able to face the problems he/she will encounter in the various areas of chemistry, providing the essential tools for their analysis.

Specific purposes. Knowledge and understanding.
The student will have the opportunity to master the concepts underlying the properties and reactivity of matter, from elements to chemical compounds, learn about general chemical structures and models, and understand the problems related to stoichiometry. He/she therefore understand the basic principles of general chemistry starting from the atomic structure, the periodic table and the chemical bond, up to chemical reactions (qualitative and quantitative aspects) with elements of kinetics and description of the aggregation states of matter included the concentrations units of the solutions. So, he/she is able to perform stoichiometric calculations, to balance redox reactions, to predict the composition of an equilibrium, to identify the speed of a reaction, to perform calculations on the solubility and pH of the solutions. He/she will also have acquired a basic knowledge of the properties of the elements and their compounds, including nomenclature.

Ability to apply knowledge and understanding.
Upon completion of the course the student will be able to correlate the various topics developed in the program by relating the properties of matter with the properties of atoms and molecules. He/she will also become familiar with the correct and appropriate application of calculation tools, using the disciplinary methods of investigation, in order to solve application questions.

Critical and judgmental abilities.
The lectures will be all interactive, in which the professor will ask continually questions to students to stimulate them and develop their critical sense. These questions allow both to evaluate the understanding of the students and solicit them to make connections with everything studied until now. The organization of the relevant exercises about the topics covered in the lectures will offer the student the opportunity to put to the test the knowledge acquired in relation to the various themes proposed. This allows to develop the ability to apply the concepts studied to practical cases and to critically evaluate the outcome and the method used in the procedures adopted.

Ability to communicate what has been learned.
In addition to providing basic knowledge, the course aims to make the student acquire mastery of language and appropriate use of chemical terminology and scientific method, essential for communicating in the national and international scientific context. To this end, ample space is dedicated to informal interventions and discussions during the lessons and to the final exam.

Ability to continue the study independently in the course of life.
The stimulus to use a correct scientific formalism and to formulate logically consistent deductions starting from the concepts and principles that underlie chemical science constitute a solid training towards cultural growth in the autonomy of future studies and professional activities.

Channels

A - D

BARBARA CHIAVARINO BARBARA CHIAVARINO   Teacher profile

Programme

Introductory notions. Subject of chemical research. Chemical phenomena. Basic laws of chemistry. Elementary particles, Proton, Neutron, Electron, Atomic number, Mass number, Symbols and chemical notation. Mole. Atomic theory. Atoms and their properties. Atomic mass. Avogadro number. Molecules and molecular weight. Types of chemical compounds and their nomenclature. Chemical reactions, acid-base reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, conservation of mass and charge, balancing of a chemical reaction, stoichiometric calculations, balance of oxidation-reduction reactions. Numerical applications. Atomic structure. Atomic spectra. Bohr model. De Broglie hypothesis, Wave model of the hydrogen atom. Quantum numbers and atomic orbitals, Electronic spin, Pauli exclusion principle, Electronic configuration of polyelectronic atoms. Periodic table. Metals and non-metals. Chemical bond: concept of valence. The different types of bonds and their properties: order, energy, bond distance, dipolar moment. Valence bond. σ and π bonds. Hybrid orbitals, resonance. Molecular geometry, Valence shell electronic pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory, Electronegativity, Polar molecules. Intermolecular bonds. 30 hours

Aggregation states and phase transitions. Aeriform, liquid and solid state. State diagrams. Solutions and their colligative properties. Equilibrium between phases and phase rules. Le Chatelier's principle. The concept of chemical equilibrium. Reactions and chemical equilibria. Factors that influence the position of equilibrium. Numerical applications. 24 hours

Electrolytic dissociation. Electrolytes and their properties in solution. Acids and bases. Definition and theories on acid-base equilibria. Relations between molecular structure and acid-base properties. Acid-base equilibria in aqueous solutions. Titrations. Indicators. Solubility. Solubility equilibria and factors that influence them. Redox reactions. Chemical kinetics. Rate, order, molecularity of a reaction, kinetic constant and its dependence on temperature. Arrhenius equation, activation energy. Notes on the theory of collisions. Catalysis. Overview of inorganic chemistry. Systematic nomenclature. Elements of the main groups and their compounds. Numerical applications. 30 hours

The teacher makes available on the course website the teaching material displayed during the lessons so as to allow students to have a precise idea on the subject matter and degree of detail.

Adopted texts

Texts adopted (chosen one from the following)

M. Schiavello, L. Palmisano “Fondamenti di Chimica” EdiSES
F. Cacace, U. Croatto “Istituzioni di Chimica” La Sapienza Editrice
D. W. Oxtoby, H. P. Gillis, A. Campion “Chimica moderna” EdiSES
Whitten, Davis, Peck, Stanley “Chimica” Piccin
R. H. Petrucci, F. G. Herring, J. D. Madura, C. Bissonnette “Chimica generale” Piccin

and for the stochiometry part:

F. Cacace, M. Schiavello “Stechiometria” Bulzoni Editore


Prerequisites

Although no prerequisites are explicitly requested, it is important to master the following preliminary knowledge: • Fundamental concepts of elementary algebra, use of powers and logarithms, methods for the resolution of first and second degree equations and systems of linear equations. • Scientific knowledge acquired during high school class

Study modes

The course has the following organization: • theoretical lessons in the classroom • deepening of theoretical issues in the classroom • resolution of numerical problems in the classroom • at the end of the lessons, one (or more) simulation test of the exam (self-assessment test) will be made, following by relative correction in the classroom. The student will find on the e-learning platform the slides and teaching material (examination procedures, program, recommended texts) useful for the preparation of the exam. It is understood that the slides are a guide to the exam topics, but can never replace the recommended texts and lectures given by the teacher.

Frequency modes

Attendance is not mandatory but strongly recommended

Exam modes

The purpose of the exam consists in verifying the level of understanding and deepening on the subject exposed during the course. It also intends to evaluate the student's reasoning skills and the ability to summarize the arguments carried out in the vision of an organic framework of the subject.

The exam consists of a written test with a stimulus closed with answers both closed and open, (time test approximately two and a half hours), and a few days later, for students who have obtained a grade equal to or greater than 18/30 there is the verbalization of the result obtained with possible integration with the oral exam.

Exams are held during the exam periods provided for in the university teaching regulations, while intermediate tests are not in progress so as not to interfere with the regular attendance of the semester lessons, as established by the study program board.

Exam reservation date start Exam reservation date end Exam date
26/01/2023 29/01/2023 30/01/2023
26/01/2023 29/01/2023 30/01/2023
26/01/2023 29/01/2023 30/01/2023
26/01/2023 29/01/2023 30/01/2023
27/02/2023 01/03/2023 02/03/2023
27/02/2023 01/03/2023 02/03/2023
27/02/2023 01/03/2023 02/03/2023
27/02/2023 01/03/2023 02/03/2023
16/06/2023 19/06/2023 20/06/2023
12/07/2023 13/07/2023 14/07/2023
25/09/2023 27/09/2023 28/09/2023

E - O

ANNA TROIANI ANNA TROIANI   Teacher profile

Programme

Fundamentals of chemistry. Matter and energy. States of aggregation of the matter. Heterogeneous and homogeneous systems. Phases. Separation of heterogeneous and homogeneous systems. Physical and chemical transformations. Mixtures, substances, chemical compounds and elements. Measurements in chemistry: units. Unit of measurement of the International System. Uncertainties in the measures: significant figures. Dimensional analysis. Unit conversion. Numerical exercises on the topics covered. [8 hours]

Atomic theory. Law of mass conservation. Law of definite proportions. Law of multiple proportions. Dalton's atomic theory. Atomic particles: discovery of the electron and determination of its charge and mass. Discovery of the proton. The nucleus: mass and electrical nature of the nucleons. Atomic number. Mass number. Isotopes. The mass of atoms. Atomic weight. Definition of Mole. Avogadro's number. Chemical symbols and their meaning. Numerical exercises on the topics covered.[8 hours]

Structure of the atom. First atomic models. Atomic spectra and their interpretation. Spectrum of the hydrogen atom. Bohr's atom. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. De Broglie relation. The wave nature of the electron. Quantum hypothesis of the hydrogen atom. The wave function. Atomic orbitals. Quantum numbers. Geometric representation of atomic orbitals. Polyelectronic atoms. Energy of the orbitals. Electron distribution in atomic orbitals (Aufbau). Exclusion principle. Principle of multiplicity. Schematic representation of orbitals and electronic configuration of atoms. Periodic table. Groups. Periods. Periodic properties of the elements: atomic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity. Metals and non-metals. [6 hours]

The chemical bond. Aggregates of atoms: molecules, crystals. Valence. Structural formulas. Rule of the octet. Ionic bond. Covalent bond. Covalent polar bond and electronegativity. Properties of the bond: order, distance, energy, dipole moment. Dative or coordination bond. Valence bond theory. Hybrid orbitals. Geometric isomerism. Resonance. Magnetic properties of molecules.
Chemical formulas. Oxidation number. Systematic nomenclature of inorganic compounds. Geometry of molecules. Theory of Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR). [8 hours]

Molecular weight. Percentage composition. Determination of molecular formulas. Numerical exercises on the topics covered.[6 hours]

Intermolecular forces. Dipole-dipole, dipole-dipole; induced and instant dipole. Hydrogen bond.[2 hours]

States of aggregation. The gaseous state. Pressure. Boyle's law. Charles law. Gay-Lussac Law - Absolute temperature scale. State Equation of ideal gases. Critical phenomena. Real gases. Van der Waals equation. Gas mixtures. Dalton's law of partial pressures. Molecular weight determination. Degree of dissociation. Numerical exercises on the topics covered.
Liquid state. Surface tension. Vapor pressure. Liquid-vapor balance. Boiling point. Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
Solid State. Elementary cell. Crystal lattices. Molecular solids. Covalent solids. Ionic solid. Metallic solids. The amorphous state. Polymorphism. Allotropy. Fusion point. Status changes: Heating and cooling curve. State diagrams.
The solutions. Ideal solutions. Solute and solvent. Solubility. Saturated and supersaturated solutions. Factors that influence solubility. Ionic solutes in polar solvents: solvation, dielectric constant. Henry's law. [10 hours]

Concentration unit: percent by weight; mole fraction; molality; molarity; percent by volume. Dilutions and mixing of solutions. Titrations. Numerical exercises on the topics covered. [4 hours]

Properties of solutions. Vapor pressure. Raoult's law. Isothermal and isobar binary diagrams. Fractional distillation. Colligative properties: lowering of the vapor pressure, lowering of the melting point and raising of the boiling point, osmotic pressure. Determination of the molecular weight of the solute through the colligative properties. Electrolytic dissociation. Colligative properties of electrolyte solutions. Numerical exercises on the topics covered. [6 hours]

General aspects of the reactions. Chemical reactions and equations. Reagents and products. Balancing of chemical equations. Oxidation-reduction reactions. Quantitative aspects of reactions. Reagent in defect. Equivalent weight (in acid-base reactions, in redox reactions, in salts). Numerical exercises on the topics covered. [6 hours]

Chemical equilibrium. Reversible reactions. The mass action law. Equilibrium constant, K. Kc and Kp. The Le Chatelier principle. Dependence of K on temperature. Numerical exercises on the topics covered. [6 hours]

Acids and bases. Properties of acids and bases. Definition of Arrhenius. Brönsted and Lowry theory. Lewis theory. Ionization balance of water. The ionic product of water, Kw. Definition of pH and pOH. PH scale. Strength of acids and bases in water. Acid and basic dissociation constant: Ka and Kb. The concentration of H3O + ions in aqueous solution. Calculation of the pH of solutions of substances with acidic and basic properties. Importance of buffer systems in the regulation of the acid-base balance of the human body. Acid-base titration. Titration curves. Detection of the equivalent point by means of indicators. Numerical exercises on the topics covered.[8 hours]

Solubility equilibria. Solubility of salts and precipitation reactions. Numerical exercises on the topics covered.[4 hours]
Thermodynamics. Enthalpy and Entropy: generalities.
Kinetics in chemical reactions. Speed of reaction. Reaction order and molecularity. Dependence of reaction rate on temperature. Transition state. Numerical exercises on the topics covered.[2 hours]

Adopted texts

- Istituzioni di Chimica - F. Cacace, U. Croatto - Bulzoni Editore
- Fondamenti di chimica generale - Seconda edizione - Atkins, Jones, Laverman -Zanichelli
- Fondamenti di Chimica - M. Schiavello, L. Palmisano - EdiSES - V ed.

Per le esercitazioni di Stechiometria:

- R. Michelin, P. Sgarbossa, M. Mozzon, A. Munari; CHIMICA - TEST ED ESERCIZI - Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
- Stechiometria; F. Cacace, M. Schiavello; Bulzoni Editore
- Stechiometria - Un avvio allo studio della chimica -Bertini, Luchinat, Mani, Ravera - Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
- Esercizi di Chimica Generale; Alessandro Del Zotto; ed. EdiSES

Bibliography

"Istituzioni di Chimica" F. Cacace, U. Croatto - Bulzoni Editore "Chimica Generale" Whitten; Davis; Peck; Stanley - Piccin editore "Chimica Moderna" - Oxtoby ; Gillis; Campion - EdiSES "Chimica Generale" Petrucci, Herring, Madura, Bissonette - Editore Piccin

Prerequisites

It is important to master the following preliminary knowledge: • Fundamental concepts of elementary algebra, use of powers and logarithms, methods for the resolution of first and second degree equations and systems of linear equations. Elements of mathematical analysis (limits, derivatives, integrals, functions) • Elements of physics (mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism).

Study modes

The course has the following organization: • explanation of the topics in the classroom • resolution of numerical problems in the classroom • self-assessment tests The student will find on the e-learning platform the slides and teaching material (examination procedures, program, recommended texts) useful for the preparation of the exam. It is understood that the slides are a guide to the exam topics, but can never replace the recommended texts and lectures given by the teacher. The student can ask the teacher additional explanation on appointment.

Frequency modes

Recommended. Attendance aims to improve the quality of learning and to give a track record for the exam. Students who cannot attend the lessons can download the detailed program and the teaching materials from the e-learning website, and receive assistance from the teacher.

Exam modes

The exam consists of a single written test of numerical exercises and open theoretical questions. It is possible to consult the Periodic Table of the Elements. The test is passed with a minimum mark of 18/30.

The exams take place during the exam periods provided for by the university didactic regulations, while in itinere tests are excluded in order not to interfere with the course and regular attendance of the semester lessons.

At the request of the student, it is possible to take an oral test ONLY if the written test has been passed with the minimum mark of 18/30. The eventual oral test always foresees the commentary with the student of its written test and consists of several questions, generally 3-5, which concern the whole study program and aim to ascertain that:
- the student has acquired the fundamental concepts of general chemistry,
- the student also acquired the skills to apply them to the main topics covered in the course.

Finally, the purpose of the exam consists of verifying the level of understanding and in-depth study of the subject exposed during the course. It also intends to evaluate the student's reasoning abilities and the ability to summarize the arguments developed in the vision of an organic framework of the subject.

Exam reservation date start Exam reservation date end Exam date
26/01/2023 29/01/2023 30/01/2023
28/02/2023 01/03/2023 02/03/2023
16/06/2023 19/06/2023 20/06/2023
11/07/2023 13/07/2023 14/07/2023
25/09/2023 27/09/2023 28/09/2023

P - Z

BARBARA CHIAVARINO BARBARA CHIAVARINO   Teacher profile

Programme

Introductory notions. Subject of chemical research. Chemical phenomena. Basic laws of chemistry. Elementary particles, Proton, Neutron, Electron, Atomic number, Mass number, Symbols and chemical notation. Mole. Atomic theory. Atoms and their properties. Atomic mass. Avogadro number. Molecules and molecular weight. Types of chemical compounds and their nomenclature. Chemical reactions, acid-base reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, conservation of mass and charge, balancing of a chemical reaction, stoichiometric calculations, balance of oxidation-reduction reactions. Numerical applications. Atomic structure. Atomic spectra. Bohr model. De Broglie hypothesis, Wave model of the hydrogen atom. Quantum numbers and atomic orbitals, Electronic spin, Pauli exclusion principle, Electronic configuration of polyelectronic atoms. Periodic table. Metals and non-metals. Chemical bond: concept of valence. The different types of bonds and their properties: order, energy, bond distance, dipolar moment. Valence bond. σ and π bonds. Hybrid orbitals, resonance. Molecular geometry, Valence shell electronic pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory, Electronegativity, Polar molecules. Intermolecular bonds. 30 hours

Aggregation states and phase transitions. Aeriform, liquid and solid state. State diagrams. Solutions and their colligative properties. Equilibrium between phases and phase rules. Le Chatelier's principle. The concept of chemical equilibrium. Reactions and chemical equilibria. Factors that influence the position of equilibrium. Numerical applications. 24 hours

Electrolytic dissociation. Electrolytes and their properties in solution. Acids and bases. Definition and theories on acid-base equilibria. Relations between molecular structure and acid-base properties. Acid-base equilibria in aqueous solutions. Titrations. Indicators. Solubility. Solubility equilibria and factors that influence them. Redox reactions. Chemical kinetics. Rate, order, molecularity of a reaction, kinetic constant and its dependence on temperature. Arrhenius equation, activation energy. Notes on the theory of collisions. Catalysis. Overview of inorganic chemistry. Systematic nomenclature. Elements of the main groups and their compounds. Numerical applications. 30 hours

The teacher makes available on the course website the teaching material displayed during the lessons so as to allow students to have a precise idea on the subject matter and degree of detail.

Adopted texts

Texts adopted (chosen one from the following)

M. Schiavello, L. Palmisano “Fondamenti di Chimica” EdiSES
F. Cacace, U. Croatto “Istituzioni di Chimica” La Sapienza Editrice
D. W. Oxtoby, H. P. Gillis, A. Campion “Chimica moderna” EdiSES
Whitten, Davis, Peck, Stanley “Chimica” Piccin
R. H. Petrucci, F. G. Herring, J. D. Madura, C. Bissonnette “Chimica generale” Piccin

and for the stochiometry part:

F. Cacace, M. Schiavello “Stechiometria” Bulzoni Editore


Prerequisites

Although no prerequisites are explicitly requested, it is important to master the following preliminary knowledge: • Fundamental concepts of elementary algebra, use of powers and logarithms, methods for the resolution of first and second degree equations and systems of linear equations. • Scientific knowledge acquired during high school class

Study modes

The course has the following organization: • theoretical lessons in the classroom • deepening of theoretical issues in the classroom • resolution of numerical problems in the classroom • at the end of the lessons, one (or more) simulation test of the exam (self-assessment test) will be made, following by relative correction in the classroom. The student will find on the e-learning platform the slides and teaching material (examination procedures, program, recommended texts) useful for the preparation of the exam. It is understood that the slides are a guide to the exam topics, but can never replace the recommended texts and lectures given by the teacher.

Frequency modes

Attendance is not mandatory but strongly recommended

Exam modes

The purpose of the exam consists in verifying the level of understanding and deepening on the subject exposed during the course. It also intends to evaluate the student's reasoning skills and the ability to summarize the arguments carried out in the vision of an organic framework of the subject.

The exam consists of a written test with a stimulus closed with answers both closed and open, (time test approximately two and a half hours), and a few days later, for students who have obtained a grade equal to or greater than 18/30 there is the verbalization of the result obtained with possible integration with the oral exam.

Exams are held during the exam periods provided for in the university teaching regulations, while intermediate tests are not in progress so as not to interfere with the regular attendance of the semester lessons, as established by the study program board.

Exam reservation date start Exam reservation date end Exam date
26/01/2023 29/01/2023 30/01/2023
26/01/2023 29/01/2023 30/01/2023
26/01/2023 29/01/2023 30/01/2023
26/01/2023 29/01/2023 30/01/2023
27/02/2023 01/03/2023 02/03/2023
27/02/2023 01/03/2023 02/03/2023
27/02/2023 01/03/2023 02/03/2023
27/02/2023 01/03/2023 02/03/2023
16/06/2023 19/06/2023 20/06/2023
12/07/2023 13/07/2023 14/07/2023
25/09/2023 27/09/2023 28/09/2023
Course sheet
  • Academic year: 2022/2023
  • Curriculum: INFORMAZIONE SCIENTIFICA SUL FARMACO
  • Year: First year
  • Semester: First semester
  • SSD: CHIM/03
  • CFU: 9
Activities
  • Attività formative di base
  • Ambito disciplinare: Discipline Chimiche
  • Lecture (Hours): 48
  • CFU: 6
  • SSD: CHIM/03
  • Attività formative caratterizzanti
  • Ambito disciplinare: Discipline Chimiche
  • Exercise (Hours): 36
  • CFU: 3
  • SSD: CHIM/03