The course of Physical Methods in Organic Chemistry and Radiochemistry aims to provide students with the fundamental knowledge of modern chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques, commonly used in the study of organic molecules in research and control laboratories. The course also aims to provide the ability to identify the most suitable chromatographic techniques for solving real problems, and to understand UV, IR, MS and NMR spectra of organic molecules. The course provides students with basic knowledge on nuclear chemistry and radiopharmaceutical preparations. At the end of the course the student will acquire the skills to analyze in-depth NMR, IR and MS spectra, to derive from their combined analysis the structure of unknown compounds, and to predict the spectroscopic properties of new compounds.

1. Knowledge and understanding
Students successfully completing this course understand and master the fundamentals of modern chromatographic techniques: adsorption, partition, kinetic aspects, van Deemter equation, composition and morphology of stationary phases, simple structure-retention relationships, solute-stationary phase-mobile phase interactions. The students know and understand the fundamentals of spectroscopic techniques: interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic spectrum, wavelength, frequency, energy content, intensity of radiation, absorption, emission, scattering, excited states, quantization. The students know and understand the theoretical principles and practical applications of IR spectroscopy (harmonic and anharmonic oscillators, fundamental vibrations, overtone, combination bands, characteristic absorptions of the main functional groups), 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR (nuclei in a magnetic field, resonance, relaxation processes, shielding and shielding constants, homo- and hetero-nuclear spin-coupling, Pople's spin notation systems, Karplus relation) and MS (ionization and fragmentation processes, analyzers). The students know and understand the theoretical principles and practical applications of instrumental hyphenated techniques (LC-MS). The students are able to understand how the spectral parameters can be influenced by the experimental conditions (physical state of the sample, concentration, solvent, temperature).

2. Applying knowledge and understanding
Students successfully completing this course should be able to select the most suitable chromatographic technique according to the structure of the compounds to be analyzed and is able to describe the process underlying the choice of stationary phases, mobile phases and detectors. The student is able to control and optimize the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the chromatographic process and is able to apply the acquired knowledge to new problems typical of research or working contexts. The student is able to interpret IR, NMR, MS spectra of simple pure organic compounds, and is able to choose the spectroscopic technique or the combination of several techniques suitable for diverse structural investigations (control of the conversion of functional groups, identification of impurities, ). The student is able to apply the known instrumental techniques to new problems that may arise in research or work areas.

3. Making judgement
Students successfully completing this course should be able to integrate the knowledge acquired during the course with those of the physical-organic chemistry that characterizes the Degree Course in CTF (study of equilibrium, reaction speed, reaction mechanisms, study of intermediates, selectivity, stereochemistry ). The student will be able to acquire data from databases and interpret multispectral data useful for solving typical problems in research and production areas such as synthesis laboratories, quality control of active ingredients, laboratories for the analysis of products of natural origin, complex mixtures of metabolites. These skills are stimulated and developed typically during exercises of interpretation of spectra, during lectures and exercises.

4. Communication
Students successfully completing this course will be able to communicate what has been learned in a clear and rigorous manner, both to non-expert interlocutors and to experts in the field. The student is stimulated to interpersonal communication typically during classroom exercises.

5. Learning skills
Students successfully completing this course should have developed autonomous learning abilities related to chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques through the consultation of databases, bibliographic material and scientific literature available on-line.





Module 1: Physical methods in organic chemistry (6CF CHIM/06)
Spectroscopic and separation methods in the analysis of organic and bioorganic compounds: general introduction.
High performance liquid chromatography- Resolution, retention factor (k’), selectivity factor (a). efficiency and theoretical plate number (N). Van Deemter equation for HPLC, GC and SFC. Stationary phases. Separation mechanisms. Chiral stationary phases.
1H Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. General introduction. Theory: magnetic moment, quantum spin number, angular momentum, giromagnetic ratio. Larmor precession. Reference samples and solvents. Electronic shielding and chimical shift, shielding constants. Chemical shift and magnetic field. Spin-spin coupling and coupling constants; spin-system classification. NMR spectra analysis: relative line intensities and multiplicity in first order spectra. 1H nuclei on heteroatoms: oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur. Exchange rate. Heteronuclear coupling. Chemical and magnetic equivalence. The influence of stereogenic centers on NMR spectra. Geminal and vicinal couplings in rigid systems: Karplus relationship. Nuclear magnetic resonance of 13C. Nuclear Overhauser Effect, totally decoupled spectra.
Infrared spectroscopy. General introduction. Theory. Interpretation of IR spectra of: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and phenols, ketones, aldehydes, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, amines and aminoacids and their salts, nitriles. Peptides.
Ultraviolet spectroscopy. General introduction. Theory; Lambert-Beer relationship; sigma sigma*, n pigreco*, pigreco pigreco* transitions.

Module 2: Mass Spectrometry and Radiochemistry (3CFU CHIM/03)
Mass Spectrometry: An Introduction to Mass Spectrometry: general aspects. Ion Sources: EI, CI, API, MALDI. Mass Analysers: Magnetic Sector, Double Focusing, Quadrupole and Triple Quadrupole, Ion Trap, Time of Flight and Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance. Mass spectra interpretation. Application of mass spectrometry to Proteomics.
Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry:
Nuclear Structure. Nuclear mass and stability. Radioactive decay. Nuclear Reactions. Natural and artificial radionuclides. Radiation effects on matter. Detection and measurements of nuclear radiation. Radiopharmaceuticals.

Adopted texts

1) Textbook:“Identificazione spettroscopica di composti organici” R.M. Silverstein, F.X. Webster Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
2) E. De Hoffmann, J. Charette, V. Stroobant "Mass Spectrometry Principles and Applications" John Wiley & Sons
3) Alison E. Ashcroft "Ionization Methods in Organic Mass Spectrometry" RSC
4) F. Cacace “Principi di Chimica Nucleare e Radiochimica”.
5) Gopal B. Saha “Fundamentals of Nuclear Pharmacy” Springer, Fifth Edition
6) Lecture notes

Exam reservation date start Exam reservation date end Exam date
01/01/2020 19/01/2021 22/01/2021
01/01/2020 22/02/2021 25/02/2021
01/01/2021 22/09/2021 23/09/2021
01/01/2020 29/09/2021 30/09/2021
01/01/2020 28/10/2021 29/10/2021
05/10/2021 20/01/2022 21/01/2022
Course sheet
  • Academic year: 2020/2021
  • Curriculum: Curriculum unico
  • Year: First year
  • Semester: First semester
  • Parent course:
  • SSD: CHIM/06
  • CFU: 6
  • Attività formative caratterizzanti
  • Ambito disciplinare: Discipline di base applicate alle biotecnologie
  • Lecture (Hours): 48
  • CFU: 6.00
  • SSD: CHIM/06